Biotechnology: developing plants, animals, and microorganisms with DNA technology by making use of natural sciences such as cell and tissue biology culture, molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, physiology, and biochemistry, as well as engineering branches such as mechanical engineering, electrical-electronic engineering, and computer engineering. These are all of the technologies used to obtain new and rare substances (products) that cannot be produced as much as we need.

Biotechnology refers to the techniques and processes used to understand and change the functions found in human, plant, and animal cells. Biotechnology has made great advances in medical matters, and great progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The main purpose of biotechnology is to improve the quality of human life. Biological processes are used in products or systems produced in biotechnology.

biotechnological products, gradually strengthening its position in the world pharmaceutical market. The shares of these products, which had 10% of the world pharmaceutical market in 2000, have approached 20% today. The products produced by synthesis chemistry are decreasing day by day, and many companies are taking steps to enter the field of biotechnology.

What Are the Uses of Biotechnology?

  • in industry.
  • In the production of new vegetables and fruits
  • Repairing your spinal cord
  • Harmful genes in humans
  • Medicinal plant production
  • Protein production, which is beneficial for human health, is also
  • In the treatment and prevention of serious diseases such as cancer,
  • Even repairing damaged brain cells

Bacteria that are obtained from organic wastes are also used in biotechnology.

Health Advantages of Biotechnology

Biotechnological drugs are products produced by biotechnological methods such as “controlled gene expression”, “antibody production methods” or “recombinant DNA technology” that make it possible to transfer a gene from one living cell to another living cell. This technology allows the natural proteins and hormones produced by the body to be produced by cell cultures in a laboratory environment.

Biotechnology has been useful in the early diagnosis of many diseases and in the development of treatment methods. The synthetic peptide, DNA, and recombinant vaccine industries have developed. Biotechnology has led to the development of gene therapy for cancer. Organs, tissues, and artificial cells are cloned and stored for therapeutic purposes. Biotechnology is used to preserve stem cells to reduce and prevent genetic disorders and also to develop drugs.

A biological drug is a product obtained or extracted from a biological source that requires a combination of physicochemical and biological tests with the manufacturing process and control to determine the nature and quality of the active ingredient. Plant and animal cells, bacteria, viruses, and living organisms such as yeast (yeast) are used to produce medical products of biotechnological origin (biological, biopharmaceutical, or biotechnological) containing proteins obtained by DNA technology or hybridoma technique.

Biological drugs are seen as advantageous because they show their effectiveness by replacing or supporting the protein naturally produced in the body, and it is known that an increasing number of patients are treated with biological products. It is known that this class of drugs is used in almost every field of modern medicine, especially in the treatment of oncology, infection, and autoimmune diseases, and new discoveries continue rapidly.

With biotechnological drugs, scientists can get a chance to cure many diseases that were considered incurable in the past. Examples of biologic drugs are immunological products, blood products, recombinant DNA technology, controlled expression of coding genes in biologically active proteins including transformed mammalian cells, advanced medical therapy products, reagents from which the active ingredient is not directly derived, such as culture medium, additives, chromatography, etc., can be given.

Biotechnology 2022

Biotechnology is studied in seven different areas within itself, and these areas are:

  1. Microbial Biotechnology
  2. Plant biotechnology (Agricultural biotechnology)
  3. Animal Biotechnology
  4. Forensic biotechnology
  5. Medical Biotechnology
  6. Aquatic Biotechnology
  7. Bioremediation

These areas can be briefly explained as follows:

Microbial biotechnology: it is the use of these microorganisms in both industrial and medical fields by providing genetic modification of microorganisms. An example of microbial biotechnology is the transfer of genes responsible for the synthesis of hormones such as blood clotting factor, growth, insulin, testosterone, interferons, and antibodies to other microorganisms, obtaining the desired proteins from these organisms and isolating them by special biochemical methods.

Plant biotechnology (agricultural biotechnology) is defined as the process of obtaining desired products from plants by providing genetic modification of plants. For example, ensuring the production of substances with different properties in plants by providing various gene transfers to plants, producing plants that are more resistant to heat and cold (with antifreeze genes) by transferring the resistance genes of some living things, or genetic interventions in plants with some chemicals that may be important for humans, making the plant more resistant to this substance.

Plant biotechnology can be given as an example of plant biotechnology, such as enabling plants to produce molecules with some important biological activity and producing drugs by isolating these chemicals.

Animal Biotechnology: it is the use of vertebrate or invertebrate organisms as a result of genetic processing, especially in the medical and industrial fields. The field in which animal biotechnology is used the most is medicine, because molecules with many biological activities (proteins such as antibodies and interferon) are also produced in animals other than microorganisms. The reason for this situation is that, in some cases, the biological activity of the proteins produced by microorganisms may be low or have no biological activity because the mechanisms necessary for the protein to have biological activity are insufficient or absent in the relevant microorganism.

For this reason, proteins that require such special structures are produced in animals. In addition, events such as the creation of transgenic living things and living cloning are among the research subjects of animal biotechnology.

Forensic biotechnology is defined as obtaining DNA samples from structures such as shirts, hair, blood, saliva, urine, semen, and the like at the crime scene to catch criminals and comparing these samples with samples taken from the victim and catching criminals by looking at the DNA fingerprint, but not with the DNA fingerprint of a person. Matching the DNA samples taken from the victim does not necessarily mean that the person committed the crime, and with more and more different tests, the culprits are determined definitively, and all such cases are in the field of forensic biotechnology.

Medical Biotechnology: The research areas of microbial biotechnology and animal biotechnology that I mentioned above are also the research topics of medical biotechnology in fields such as gene therapy in living things, stem cell technology, and tissue engineering.

Aquatic Biotechnology: Aquatic biotechnology can be defined as the production of desired products from sea creatures or freshwater creatures (fish, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, plankton, and microorganisms) under laboratory conditions and by providing modifications to these creatures using genetic engineering techniques. In addition, some fish species with commercial value can be made more resistant with special genetic interventions, increasing their chances of survival and reproduction in harsh environmental conditions outside their natural habitat, or enabling these creatures to reach larger sizes in a shorter time by having them undergo a high rate of growth hormone synthesis.

It is one of the main research areas of aquatic biotechnology to reduce the cost by ensuring that the stages are passed quickly. Apart from these, the transfer of special genes found in some sea creatures to other living things or the production of necessary drugs by enabling these creatures to overproduce some special molecules they have, biochemical isolation of these molecules, and the production of some biological molecules in sea creatures, as usual, are also the subjects of aquatic biotechnology.

Bioremediation: Actually, this field is highly related to microbial biotechnology, and nature is protected by enabling these creatures to decompose the waste materials in the environment by taking advantage of some of the properties of microorganisms. The best examples of bioremediation are saprophytic bacteria. These bacteria secrete some special secretory enzymes out of the cell that break down organic molecules in the environment and take the nutrients they need into their bodies, so that they both benefit themselves and the environment is purified of organic waste.

To give another example of bioremediation, the use of oil-degrading bacteria for cleaning purposes in areas with oil spills or the cleaning of toxic chemicals by placing bacteria that break down some toxic chemicals and obtain energy in those toxic environments can be given as examples of bioremediation.

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